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Vulva conformation

Equine-Reproduction.com Bulletin Board » General Mare Questions - Volume 2 » Vulva conformation « Previous Next »


Author Message
 

Michele
Yearling
Username: Mich

Post Number: 53
Registered: 02-2006
Posted on Monday, October 22, 2007 - 02:09 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Jos, is there a place I could post a photo of a mare's vulva so that you can give your opinion on it? It's like nothing I've seen before and I'd appreciate an expert view with regard to breeding this mare and what you think the severity of the conformational abnormality is.
Many Thanks
Michele
 

Jos
Board Administrator
Username: Admin

Post Number: 1594
Registered: 10-1999
Posted on Monday, October 22, 2007 - 08:00 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

If you post it to one of the on-line photo albums, and post the link here, as long as it does not require a password I will take a look at it. Be advised though that it is actually quite difficult to get a good photo that displays the true angulations of the vulval region, so I may not be able to say much.

You would be better advised to measure the region and determine the Caslick's index yourself. You can do this by measuring the distance in centimeters between the dorsal commisure of the vulva and the top of the pelvic brim at the lower portion of the vulval opening, and then the angulation in degrees of the vulva (vertical is zero degrees).
  • If the resulting number is 50 or below, she is a Caslick's I index, has good reproductive conformation and will be extremely unlikely to require a Caslick's procedure;
  • If the resulting number is between 51 and 150, she has variably questionable conformation is a Caslick's II index, and may benefit from a Caslick's procedure;
  • If the resulting number is above 151, then she has poor conformation and although a Caslick's procedure may prove beneficial, it may also prove detrimental by creating or exacerbating a urine pooling or windsucking condition.
 

Michele
Yearling
Username: Mich

Post Number: 55
Registered: 02-2006
Posted on Tuesday, October 23, 2007 - 11:15 am:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Ok, thanks, I'll let you know.
 

Michele
Yearling
Username: Mich

Post Number: 56
Registered: 02-2006
Posted on Tuesday, October 23, 2007 - 12:56 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Hi Jos

Here are the links to view the two photos I put up.

Thanks
Michele

http://i226.photobucket.com/albums/dd223/apploosa/vulva1.jpg

http://i226.photobucket.com/albums/dd223/apploosa/vulva2.jpg
--------------------------------------------------
 

Jos
Board Administrator
Username: Admin

Post Number: 1596
Registered: 10-1999
Posted on Tuesday, October 23, 2007 - 09:27 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

As I previously observed, it can be difficult to gain an accurate impression without an excellent photograph, and although these are adequate photos, I can't really tell whether there is labial misalignment or not. Spreading the labia with your fingers should tell you that - if there is inadequate labial alignment it could be an issue. Such misalignment if it is indeed present could be caused by a prior injury.

Overall, looking just at the photos as presented with no additional information, if you were to push me for a comment, I would say that the mare is overweight, and that is impacting the labial position which is probably not abnormal other than the current positioning caused by the obesity. Loose weight, and she will probably be fine. That opinion however could certainly change with a more complete evaluation and more information though! :-)
 

Michele
Yearling
Username: Mich

Post Number: 57
Registered: 02-2006
Posted on Tuesday, October 23, 2007 - 11:53 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Thanks very much for your comment and I appreciate that you can't make a full observation from photos. Just a point that even though the mare is in 'show' condition now, her vuvla always looks like that i.e. the two sides are different from each other and the one side appears to fold in. However when manually inspecting it there is very little lip there at all even though at first appearance it looks as though the right side tucks in. It doesn't, there's just 'less' of it if you can understand what I mean.

It's interesting what you say about previous injury, as the owner did say that she thought the stallion might have got to the filly when she was about 9 months old but I'm wondering if so, how much could be attribted to that and how much to genetic conformation.
 

Jos
Board Administrator
Username: Admin

Post Number: 1598
Registered: 10-1999
Posted on Wednesday, October 24, 2007 - 09:22 am:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

If reducing the obesity does not improve the condition, then it may be more of a problem.

How old is this mare and has she had a foal before? You may also want to have her palpated to confirm the presence and functional size of her reproductive tract. There are certain chromosomal malfunctions that can result in immature reproductive development, and which can manifest with an immature external reproductive tract (as well as internal). Many of these chromosomally imbalanced mares are infertile.
 

Michele
Yearling
Username: Mich

Post Number: 58
Registered: 02-2006
Posted on Thursday, October 25, 2007 - 07:02 am:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Very interesting, Jos.

She is 2 1/2 yrs old and not had a foal. Should we wait until she's over 3 to palpate?
 

Michele
Yearling
Username: Mich

Post Number: 59
Registered: 02-2006
Posted on Thursday, October 25, 2007 - 07:21 am:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Forgot to add that she shows very regular seasons.

On a lighter note, it would seem the two photos 'violated' Bucketshop's 'terms and conditions' and have therefore been removed
 

Jos
Board Administrator
Username: Admin

Post Number: 1599
Registered: 10-1999
Posted on Thursday, October 25, 2007 - 09:51 am:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

If she is displaying very clear estrus/diestrus phases (receptive/resistant to the stallion) then there is a pretty good chance she is indeed ovulating - in which case it is unlikely that there is a chromosomal imbalance. If she is not showing definitive differences in response - if it is more of a continuous winter anestrus "ho hum" response - then that may be indicative of the problem.

You can have her checked now, but be aware that if there are small ovaries, that - at the age of 2½ - may merely indicate immaturity.

Photobucket are idiots. People had the same problem earlier this year when they were posting images of their pregnant mare's vulvas to compare relaxation prior to foaling. That too apparently was a violation of the ridiculous morals of Photobucket...
 

Michele
Yearling
Username: Mich

Post Number: 60
Registered: 02-2006
Posted on Thursday, October 25, 2007 - 12:27 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Thanks Jos. Yes, she's definitely receptive and resistant to the stallion and goes into winter anoestrus.

You wrote: " - if it is more of a continuous winter anestrus "ho hum" response - then that may be indicative of the problem."

Can you please explain what response you mean?
 

Jos
Board Administrator
Username: Admin

Post Number: 1600
Registered: 10-1999
Posted on Thursday, October 25, 2007 - 09:19 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Mares resist the stallion's advances because of elevated levels of the hormone progesterone. Progesterone is secreted by the CL - the structure that forms in the area left behind on the ovary following ovulation.

During the winter anestrus period the mare is not ovulating, hence no CL formation and no progesterone production.

No progesterone = no resistance to the stallion.

But...

When the mare is in estrus, she will have a reasonably large follicle present on her ovary. The ovary secretes (among other hormones) estrogen. Estrogen encourages receptivity to the stallion's advances. Hence, if there is no progesterone being secreted (i.e. no functional CL present), and a follicle secreting estrogen, then the mare is likely to be highly receptive to the stallion.

But...

In the winter anestrus period, there is no ovarian activity going on (no cyclicity), and therefore no follicular development, and no estrogen secretion. Hence, although one does not have progesterone (see above), and therefore the mare is not forced to a resistance response, neither is there estrogen secretion, and therefore the mare is not forced to a receptive response either. The mare that is teased by a stallion during winter anestrus will therefore neither display receptivity nor resistance... just a "ho hum" attitude to the stallion... she'll sort of respond to teasing with "what are you saying? Oh, OK... look at that hay over there... Oh look a bird... Oh, cars.... hmmm... do you think it will rain tomorrow?"
 

Michele
Yearling
Username: Mich

Post Number: 62
Registered: 02-2006
Posted on Thursday, October 25, 2007 - 11:23 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Great explanation. From what you describe, she's showing 100% normal seasons.
Thanks



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