MAIN PAGE
EQUINE REPRODUCTION ARTICLES
SHORT COURSES
OTHER SERVICES AVAILABLE FROM EQUINE-REPRODUCTION.COM
FROZEN SEMEN STALLIONS
CERTIFIED SEMEN FREEZING LOCATIONS
EQUINE REPRODUCTION SUPPLIES
EQUINE REPRODUCTION BOOKS
EQUINE REPRODUCTION LINKS
EQUINE REPRODUCTION E-MAIL LIST
EASILY CALCULATE THE CORRECT VOLUME OF SEMEN AND EXTENDER TO SHIP OR USE ON FARM!
EQUINE REPRODUCTION BULLETIN BOARD
SITE MAP OF EQUINE-REPRODUCTION.COM
CONTACT US

horse breeding
horse breeding
horse breeding
horse breeding
horse breeding
horse breeding
horse breeding
horse breeding
horse breeding
horse breeding
horse breeding
horse breeding
horse breeding
horse breeding
Go to the articles page
 
Equine-Reproduction.com Bulletin Board
 
Topics Page Topics Page Register for a new account Register Edit Profile Profile Log Out Log Out Help/Instructions Help    
New Posts New Posts Last 1|3|7 Days Search Search Tree View Tree View  
Posting is restricted to registered board members only to prevent spamming of the board. We regret the necessity of this action, but hope you will appreciate the importance of the integrity of the board. Registration is free and information provided during the process will not be submitted to third parties.

Follicle Questions... (pictures attached)

Equine-Reproduction.com Bulletin Board » General Mare Questions - Volume 1 » Follicle Questions... (pictures attached) « Previous Next »


Author Message
 

Jason Bragg
Posted From: 148.65.1.195
Posted on Saturday, July 17, 2004 - 04:11 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Hello,

I'm new to this forum and I was wondering if I might ask a few questions?

I've been breeding and raising Tennessee Walking Horses for the past 8 years (Saddlebreds before that) and I've been doing A.I., Collection, and Shipping for the past 5 years. I've recently added an Ultrasound to my breeding facility and have been trained by an experianced Equine Reproduction Vet on it's opeation. Unfortunatly she's out of town right now so I thought I would ask my question here.

I bought a 19yr old mare last weekend that has only had 4 foals and she hasn't been bred in the past 4 years. I gave her a shot of Lut. Wednesday (7/14/04) to bring her into heat and I ultrasounded today (7/17/04)to determine if she had a follicle and it's size. It appears that she has a 27MM follicle on her left ovary and a 24MM follicle on her right ovary along with multiple smaller follicles.

You can see the Ultrasound Images online at http://www.beaverviewfarm.com/ultrasound_images.htm

My vet didn't go over the Follicles and Ovaries much, just mostly how to detect pregnancy. Could someone please take a look at these images for me and confirm what I think I'm looking at?

If I wanted to A.I. this mare only ONE time, at what size Follicle should I A.I. on? They can ovulate anytime between 35-50MM right?

With both Follicles being so near the same size, what are my chances of having a double ovulation? Is that bad?

How many days do you estimate it will take before the 27MM Follicle reaches 35MM? I plan to watch the growth of the Follicle every day and can probably determine a growth rate fairly easily, but is there an average rate of growth for most mares?

Thanks in advance for you help,
Jason Bragg
Beaver View Farm
http://www.beaverviewfarm.com

P.S. - To those who have put this website together, you have done a WONDERFUL job. I've been reading through the site for several days, and the amount of useful information here is just unbelievable. I plan to take some of your short corses in the future whenever my vacation rolls around...
 

Jos
Posted From: 137.186.22.72
Posted on Sunday, July 18, 2004 - 01:59 am:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Could someone please take a look at these images for me and confirm what I think I'm looking at?

It does appear that you are looking at follicles, although one cannot be absolutely sure about the right ovary without actually knowing precisely where in the mare you are, as it could also possibly be fluid or a large cyst. Let us for the moment however assume that you are indeed on the ovary, in which case, yes they look like follicles.

One thing to consider is that you get a more accurate representation of size if you take 2 measurements - horizontal and vertical - and average the figures. From this you will see that although you have 24/27 diameter, you have less depth in both cases. This means that you could be misled into thinking the mare is closer to an ovulatory size than perhaps she is.

If I wanted to A.I. this mare only ONE time, at what size Follicle should I A.I. on? They can ovulate anytime between 35-50MM right?

There's no answer to this one! If you find it, there's an entire group of people out there wanting to know!! :-)

Any follicle over 35 mm in diameter is generally considered "suspect" for ovulation (few horses will ovulate on a follicle smaller than that size, although some do). The trouble is, some mares can develop follicles as large as 70 mm (or even greater) before ovulating... hence, you have to "follow the follicle", and look for other indications of impending ovulation. Some of these would be softening of the follicle; tenderness upon palpation (from the mare's point of view); a change in regularity of shape per ultrasound; a thickening of the follicular wall per ultrasound. Not all of these signs will necessarily be present in all pre-ovulatory follicles, but their presence assists identification of same.

With both Follicles being so near the same size, what are my chances of having a double ovulation? Is that bad?

Again, you need to follow the follicles. One may regress, or it may ovulate. Up to 25% of estrous cycles end in a multiple ovulation in some breeds, so there is a chance that you will see one here. Is it bad? Well, yes, and no! :-) If managed correctly, mares that ovulate multiple follicles are actually considerably more fertile than single-ovulators. There is however a requirement to manage twins if they do occur (i.e. reduce the pregnancies to a singleton). Multiple ovulating mares, when so managed, can give an 80%+ pregnancy rate, which is good when compared to the +/- 60% single ovulating mare. The situation does however require more management.

How many days do you estimate it will take before the 27MM Follicle
reaches 35MM? ... is there an average rate of growth for most mares?


Follicles grow at a rate of 3-5 mm per day on average.

I have to caution you again to follow the individual follicle though, and not rely solely on it's reaching a given size as an indicator of impending ovulation and breeding time!

Good luck!! :-)
 

Jason Bragg
Posted From: 148.78.243.24
Posted on Sunday, July 18, 2004 - 08:47 am:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Jos,

Thanks for answering all of my questions!

I'm fairly sure that I was on the right ovary because it was directly opposite of the left and it felt exactly like my vet explained it would. I could also see several other smaller follicles around that one on the right but was unable to get them in the picture and still have a good view of the big follicle. What I thought to be the right ovary did however seem to be smaller in palpation than the left, and deeper in the tissue if you will.

Do most mares follow a pattern? For example, if this mare ovulates on 40MM, will she ovulate on a 40MM follicle every time, or is it random?

If I were to give her a shot of HCG once the follicle reaches 35MM, how long should I wait after the shot before inseminating her? The follicle needs to be at least 35MM before giving HCG correct?

Thanks,
Jason Bragg
Beaver View Farm
http://www.beaverviewfarm.com
 

Jos
Posted From: 137.186.22.247
Posted on Sunday, July 18, 2004 - 10:36 am:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

There can be a degree of repetitive behaviour with pre-ovulatory size, but it can also be influenced by other factors, such as the time of the year (may go faster in the height of breeding season) and if there are double follicles (will ovulate smaller).

90% of mares ovulate bewteen 36 and 42 hours after receiving a dose of hCG in the face of a 35 mm follicle. Make sure you do not overdose - the dosage for a +/- 1,000 horse is anywhere between 1,500 and 3,300 iu. Overdosing with more that 5,000 iu can suppress ovulation.
 

Jason Bragg
Posted From: 148.65.1.195
Posted on Sunday, July 18, 2004 - 10:46 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Jos,

I didn't get to ultrasound my mare until 5:30 PM this evening and am quite worried that I might have missed her ovulation off that left follicle. I searched for 30 minutes and was unable to find that large follicle on the left side. What I did find was what appeared to be a mushroom looking effect on the left side. I had no troubles finding the right follicle and it has grown quit a bit. I got a much better image of the right follicle today and figured its size at 29MM by measuring horizontally and vertically and then averaging the two as you suggested.

I read somewhere on the net that after ovulation the ovary will have a mushroom looking effect where that CL forms. This and the fact I was unable to find that large follicle has lead me to believe she ovulated on that side sometime between Noon yesterday and 5:00 PM this evening. Am I correct in that assumption?

Based on that assumption I went ahead and inseminated the mare this evening at 7:30 PM. If she did ovulate between noon yesterday and 5:30 PM this evening. Would that egg still be around at 7:30 PM this evening for fertilization?

I posted new pictures on my Ultrasound Images webpage. You're opinion would be much appreciated... The URL is: http://www.beaverviewfarm.com/ultrasound_images.htm

I decided not to give her hCG on this cycle because I wanted to watch the development of the follicles.


Thanks for your help,
Jason Bragg
Beaver View Farm
http://www.beaverviewfarm.com
 

Jos
Posted on Monday, July 19, 2004 - 12:34 am:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

I read somewhere on the net that after ovulation the ovary will have a mushroom looking effect where that CL forms. This and the fact I was unable to find that large follicle has lead me to believe she ovulated on that side sometime between Noon yesterday and 5:00 PM this evening. Am I correct in that assumption?

Looking at the images, I have my doubts that you found the ovary, as the image you show looks more like a reflective artefact than an ovarian structure. Kathy has looked at it too, and we are agreed on that.

The mushroom-like structure that has been mentioned looks like this:
CH/CL

Based on that assumption I went ahead and inseminated the mare this evening at 7:30 PM. If she did ovulate between noon yesterday and 5:30 PM this evening. Would that egg still be around at 7:30 PM this evening for fertilization?

The oocyte (or ova) is generally considered to be reasonably viable for up to 12 hours following ovulation. Beyond that, and although a pregnancy may be established, there is a distinct increase in EED. It is better to breed no later than 6 hours post ovulation, especially if one is using fresh semen, as with fresh, another 4 hours must be added to the equation for capacitation to occur to obtain a sperm capable of fertilization.
 

Jos
Posted From: 137.186.22.239
Posted on Monday, July 19, 2004 - 12:39 am:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Perhaps (after looking at the image) I should clarify a little what is there... :-)

You are looking at an ovary, and more or less centrally (very slightly to the right) in the image, you can see a lighter structure within the darker field. This is the mushroom you talk about (you have to have a good imagination to be an ultrasonographer!! :-) ). In the very center of that lighter structure you can see a darker area again (slightly to the right of the center of the lighter area). The lighter aread is the newly formed CH/CL, and the dark center is blood within the CH/CL. There is also a dark area to the left of the CH/CL, which is a secondary follicle.
 

Jason Bragg
Posted From: 141.153.63.79
Posted on Monday, July 19, 2004 - 09:30 am:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Jos,

I had by doubts that I had found the left ovary as well. Can't quit figure why it was so easy to find the first day and so hard to find the second day. Then again, the right was hard to find the first day and yesterday it was easy to find. Guess that's just lack of experiance... =)

One of the things that I had wondered about is if after ovulation of the largest follicle, would I still be able to see the smaller follicles in the ovary? The picture you posted above helps a bunch...

I have the stallion here on the farm so nothing was lost by breeding her yesterday.

I'll check her again this evening and post an update...

Thanks,
Jason
 

Jason Bragg
Posted From: 148.65.1.195
Posted on Monday, July 19, 2004 - 11:03 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Jos,

You were right, I did miss finding the left ovary yesterday. I had no problems finding it this evening and the large follicle was still there. The right ovary was the one that was hard to find this evening, but after a few minutes I was able to find both ovaries.

As of 8:00 PM this evening the left follicle averages out to be 30.5MM and the right follicle averages out to by 32.5MM. I think they are growing at a rate of about 3.5MM per day. By tomorrow evening the right follicle should be reaching 35MM and that will be the 5th day of her cycle.

I posted new pictures this evening. The link is: http://www.beaverviewfarm.com/ultrasound_images.htm Sorry the images arn't quite as clear as they have been the past few days, I was in a bit of a hury this evening. Do you see any signs yet in the images that might lead you to believe she will ovulate soon? :-)

I think I'll start breeding her tomorrow evening just to make sure I don't miss the ovulation.

Is it possible for a mare to ovulate after she stops teasing to the stallion? If she goes the normal 7 days that means she only has 3 days left in which to ovulate.

Thanks,
Jason
 

Jos
Posted From: 137.186.22.16
Posted on Tuesday, July 20, 2004 - 08:39 am:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

The image of the follicle on the right ovary suggests some thickening of the follicular wall at the bottom, which - if it is indeed present (and not just an artefact in that picture) is indicative of ovulation in the next 24 or so hours. Without being able to move the probe myself though, and evaluating from several angles, it is a little difficult to say with certainty!

Yes, some mares do ovulate after "going out of heat", although they are rare.

Keep watching!
 

Jason Bragg
Posted From: 148.65.1.195
Posted on Tuesday, July 20, 2004 - 10:42 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

I inseminated Fox this evening about 5:00 PM (just incase,) then I ultrasounded her about 7:30 this evening. The right follicle is still there and growing. It's made it up to 38.5MM now and the left follicle seems to be shrinking. I could still see the fluid from where I inseminated her a few hours earlier.

Is it normal that the left follicle would be shrinking now or did I just not get a good view of it on the ultrasound? I took my ultrasound off the 1.5x zoom to try and get a better look at the left and it seemed that no matter how I repositioned the probe I just couldn't get that left follicle to measure any larger than 25.5MM; it was 30.5MM just yesterday evening!

The area underneath the right follicle looks different this evening. It appears like it's pulling upward toward that point on the bottom of the follicle. Is that where the ovulation fossa is going to be?

I posted new ultrasound images from this evening on my webpage http://www.beaverviewfarm.com/ultrasound_images.htm

Did I mention how cool this is to have you guys there walking through this with me? It's really appreciated!

Thanks,
Jason
 

Jos
Posted From: 137.186.22.138
Posted on Wednesday, July 21, 2004 - 09:14 am:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Is it normal that the left follicle would be shrinking now

It is quite possible that it is regressing. During the development of follicles, there will often be multiple follicle present, of which one is (by an as-yet not completely understood mechanism) determined to be the dominant follicle, with the others regressing. Sometimes of course, there are multiple ovulations, but most times the other follicles regress.

The area underneath the right follicle looks different this evening.
It appears like it's pulling upward toward that point on the bottom of
the follicle. Is that where the ovulation fossa is going to be?


The ovulation fossa is part of the ovary, not something that is formed by the ovulation. The ovary is roughly kidney-shaped, and the ovulation fossa is the indented part of the ovary. You sort of have the right idea though... the change of shape and tear-drop effect is usually indicative of the portion of the follicle that is heading towards the ovulation fossa, and is where it will rupture when ovulation occurs. This follicle may be developing that shape, and it appears that there is continuation of the presence of the thickened follicular wall that I mentioned yesterday - that is why you are seeing a more distinct lower margin to the follicle (white line). I would caution though, that follicles can change shape to some extent in a temporary manner (especially as they get softer closer to ovulation), and it may appear rounder the next time you view it, or more tear-drop shaped! :-)

As with yesterday... keep watching!
 

Nancy
Posted From: 65.33.197.87
Posted on Wednesday, July 21, 2004 - 03:00 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

I have a question somewhat related to this. I had my mare inseminated with frozen a few hours after ovulation which was about 24 hours after her injection. She had another follicle at that time (sorry don't know the size) that looked like it was ready to drop soon after. She was even tender upon palpation of it - but it was still there 12 hours after insemination. I took her home and she ended up showing heat signs for another three days. I have been told this is pretty much the kiss of death for the inseminated follicle and that we should have waited for the second to develop and just have ignored the first. Is this true? Other than making the cerivx stay open, does this second follicle change hormones or anything?
thanks!
 

Jason Bragg
Posted From: 148.65.1.195
Posted on Wednesday, July 21, 2004 - 10:08 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Well, as of 7:00 PM this evening still no ovulation. The left follicle is about the same size as yesterday, but the right follicle has increased in size to 41MM. I posted new images at http://www.beaverviewfarm.com/ultrasound_images.htm

Jason
 

Jos
Posted From: 137.186.22.224
Posted on Wednesday, July 21, 2004 - 10:28 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Nancy:

Not sure who told you about the kiss of death, but I wouldn't worry too much if they kiss you...! :-)

The structure that forms following an ovulation (the CL) starts secreting progesterone, that in turn starts shutting the cervix down. It is not uncommon to see mares that "stand" for a couple of days after ovulating (indeed it is usual to see them stand for 2 days), and although a second follicle may delay cervical closure slightly, progesterone will prevail over other hormones, and the cervix will be firmly closed (assuming no other cervical problems!) by the time the conceptus arrives in the uterus 5.5 days after fertilization. So - as you can see, the kiss of death isn't...

Does the second follicle change anything? Yes - it should make you even more diligent in your search for twins when pregnancy checking by ultrasound!!! :-)
 

Jos
Posted From: 137.186.22.224
Posted on Wednesday, July 21, 2004 - 10:29 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Jason:

"Mare" is a four-lettered word!

Hang in there!! :-)
 

Jason Bragg
Posted From: 148.65.1.195
Posted on Thursday, July 22, 2004 - 09:15 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

LOL.. Still hanging in there!!!

As of 7:00 PM this evening, still have no ovulation. The right follicle is up to 45.5MM,and I've added a new picture to the page http://www.beaverviewfarm.com/ultrasound_images.htm

Today makes the 7th day of her heat cycle...

This is off the subject but I thought I'd share an experiance from years ago. I had an older palomino mare that came for breeding. This was before I started collection, shipping, and A.I. She teased in and bred every other day for 19 days. I would have swore she wouldn't have gotten pregnant but when the owners took her for an ultrasound. Sure enough she was pregnant and according to the ultrasound measurements it was the 19th day that did the trick!

Jason
 

Jason Bragg
Posted From: 148.65.1.195
Posted on Friday, July 23, 2004 - 11:54 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Jos,

Still no ovulation today. New picture at http://www.beaverviewfarm.com/ultrasound_images.htm

The follicle measures 49MM now, but the edges are shadowed. I tried to reposition the probe several times and was unable to get a clear view of the outside edges of the follicle. I had to estimate where the edges were to get 49MM.

What if this mares follicle begines to regress in size without ovulating? I had a mare owner who ordered shipped semen and had that problem this spring. Her mare would grow a follicle then go out of heat without ovulating. If a mare does that will she do it again on the next cycle? Will a shot of hCG at 35MM still make a mare like this ovulate? My mare will probably ovulate before the weekend is over, but I was just courious beacuse I had herd of the follicles regressing before.

Thanks,
Jason
 

Jos
Posted From: 137.186.22.105
Posted on Saturday, July 24, 2004 - 10:38 am:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

I wouldn't get too alarmed yet... it looks as though it is proceeding normally... "a watched follicle never ovulates"...! :-) Now if you were to not look at it tonight, she will have ovulated by the morning!!

hCG may assist in the ovulation, but now that the follicle is this size, it is probably a little academic, as by the time the action of the hCG kicks in, she will have ovulated anyway.

A follicle getting to >45 mm and regressing would be unusual, although not unheard of. What is of more of a concern with the larger follicles is the appearance of an annovulatory hemorrhagic follicles, which again, although not common can be frustrating when they occur.

Just something else for you to worry about... :-)
 

Jason Bragg
Posted From: 148.65.1.195
Posted on Saturday, July 24, 2004 - 09:06 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Jos,

I think she finally ovulated!!!

I checked her this evening at 7:00PM and I couldn't find that large follicle on the right ovary. I could see all the other smaller follicles on the ovary, but not the big one. I can see a cloudy area where the follicle was, but I don't see the mushroom shape. How long after ovulation does the mushroom shape appear, and how long does it stay?

Can you take a look at the new picture and help explain / confirm what I think I'm looking at? http://www.beaverviewfarm.com/ultrasound_images.htm

Thanks,
Jason
 

Jos
Posted on Saturday, July 24, 2004 - 09:32 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

It does look as though she has!

Don't count on seeing the mushroom - although if you were to invert that image you have, and stare at it long enough, I think you might be able to make one out... :-)

Seriously - the mushroom shape may be present, or not. It's not really seen often enough to consider it a definitive item to look for - is that because we're not continually checking ovaries so we pinpoint the ovulation? Maybe... but in my experience, one is more likely to see something that looks like this:

CL

or this:

CL


I think you get the idea...

Remember, there is no such thing as a guarantee in the breeding business...!

So - did you have semen in her at the right moment? :-)

And see - I told you if you didn't look at her tonight she'd ovulate!
 

Jason Bragg
Posted From: 148.78.243.24
Posted on Saturday, July 24, 2004 - 10:29 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Jos,

Once again I'd like to thank you for helping walk me through this. It is most definitely appreciated. As I mentioned several days ago I'm kind of new to the use of an ultrasound and this is the first mare that I've ever tried to find the follicle on and monitor it thru the entire heat cycle. Previously I had mostly used the ultrasound to find pregnancies.

To answer your question; Yes, I believe that I did have semen in her at the right time... I collected my horse yesterday evening and inseminated her on that 49MM follicle. Then I inseminated her again this evening at 4:00 PM before I ultrasounded her. Then when I ultrasounded her at 7:00PM she had ovulated. As per my vets recommendation with my older mares I gave her a shot of Oxytocin about 5 hours later to help flush out any left over fluids. So providing she doesn't have some other issues going on I think she should have a good chance at getting pregnant.

I'll ultrasound her again in about 14 days to see if I can find a pregnancy. I'll post an update on what I find.

I've been looking through your short courses, and I'm wondering if you offer a short course just on the use of the ultrasound in equine reproduction?

Thanks,
Jason
 

Jason Bragg
Posted From: 148.78.243.25
Posted on Sunday, July 25, 2004 - 03:13 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Jos,

What size should a 12 day pregnancy be?

Thanks,
Jason
 

Jos
Posted From: 137.186.22.163
Posted on Sunday, July 25, 2004 - 07:53 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

A 12 day conceptus will be ±10 mm. There is a variation of 2 days in conceptuses measured at this diameter.
 

Jos
Posted From: 137.186.22.163
Posted on Sunday, July 25, 2004 - 09:04 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Jason:

For an older mare, a single shot of oxytocin post-breeding may not be sufficient to clear fluid, and endometritis can still ensue. Take a look at the article on oxytocin use during breeding on this web site for more details.
 

Nancy
Posted From: 65.33.197.87
Posted on Monday, July 26, 2004 - 03:24 pm:   Edit Post Delete Post    Move Post (Moderator/Admin Only)

Jos -
thanks again. Got her checked today and she is pregnant! (this is the cervical repair mare you helped me make decision about earlier)
I am now done for this year!



Please note that opinions, product information, advice or suggestions posted on this bulletin board are not necessarily those of the management at Equine-Reproduction.com nor does the maintenance of the post position indicate an implicit or any endorsement of that information, opinion or product.

Further, although we have the greatest respect for the posters offering assistance here, you are advised to seek a consultation with your veterinarian prior to using information obtained from this board if it is of a veterinary nature.

Proud to be sponsored and supported by:
IMV Technologies - makers of Equine AI Equipment
Equine A.I. Equipment Supplies
Universal Medical Systems Ultrasounds
For your Veterinary Ultrasounding Needs
Hamilton Research Inc - Home of the Equitainer
Hamilton Research Inc - Home of the Equitainer
Exodus Breeders Supply - Your one-stop shop for all your reproductive needs!
Exodus Breeders Supply
Har-Vet: An Industry Leader in Equine Veterinary Products
An Industry Leader in Equine Veterinary Products!
Reproduction Resources: Specializing in Artificial Breeding and Embryo Transfer Supplies
Specializing in Artificial Breeding and ET Supplies
BET Pharm: Your Compounding Pharmacy for Reproductive Needs!
Your Compounding Pharmacy for Reproductive Needs!
www.SemenTanks.com - Quality Tanks at Competitive Prices!
Quality Tanks at Competitive Prices!
J.L. Smith Co. - Safe, affordable breeding stocks!
Safe, affordable breeding stocks!
  International Veterinary Information Service
International Veterinary Information Service
 

MAIN PAGE | INFORMATIONAL ARTICLES | SHORTCOURSES | SERVICES
FROZEN STALLIONS | FREEZING LOCATIONS | SUPPLIES | BOOKS | LINKS
EQUINE REPRODUCTION E-MAIL LIST | SEMEN CALCULATOR | BULLETIN BOARD
SITEMAP | CONTACT US