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Embryo size...

Ask questions, and get some insight into frozen semen, it's preparation and use.

Moderator: Jos

Embryo size...

Postby Cindy » Sun Jun 24, 2012 1:01 pm

We preg checked a mare this morning at 13 days post ovulation. She had been bred with frozen. We are pretty sure we found a pregnancy but it is only 5.5-6mm in size. I know frozen breedings can tend to lag a day behind or so so just wondering if this was an o.k. size or should we be concerned? There was the two echoic (?) white lines showing at the top and bottom as well. We are going to check her in another couple of days to see how things are progressing but just thought I would ask if she might be in an o.k. range or size. Thanks!
Cindy
Weanling
 
Posts: 26
Joined: Sun Jun 24, 2012 12:50 pm

Re: Embryo size...

Postby Jos » Sun Jun 24, 2012 7:14 pm

The equine conceptus is usually 3-5 mm in diameter on day 10 and then grows at a rate of about 3.4 mm/day through to day 16 (Betteridge et. al., 1982 and Ginther et. al., 1983). From that we can estimate that what you are seeing is representative of about an 11 day conceptus.

Having said that, work by Newcombe et. al. (see below) demonstrated that conceptus diameter can be influenced by time of breeding/conception. For some years, it had been thought that use of frozen semen led to a smaller diameter conceptus, but it seems more likely it was because breedings with frozen semen were often performed post-ovulation. From that we can extrapolate that your apparent 11 day conceptus could possibly be a 12-13 day conceptus!

With respect to the referenced "echoic (?) white lines showing at the top and bottom" - these don't actually exist and are artifacts of ultrasonography known as "spectral reflections". They are not indication of a conceptus (or anything else come to that). They may be seen in connection with any area of anechoic fluid in the uterus - they may appear with cysts as well. It is sometimes erroneously thought these spectral reflections are indications that one is looking at a pregnancy, but they're not.

Theriogenology Volume 71, Issue 8, Pages 1267-1275 (May 2009)

Effect of type of semen, time of insemination relative to ovulation and embryo transfer on early equine embryonic vesicle growth as determined by ultrasound

J. Cuervo-Arangoa, J. Aguilar, J.R. Newcombe

Received 29 August 2008; received in revised form 15 December 2008; accepted 26 December 2008. published online 02 March 2009.

Embryonic vesicle growth in the mare is easily monitored by ultrasound. Apart from pregnancy diagnosis, assessment of the embryonic vesicle in practice is also useful to evaluate its viability. Although subject to individual variation, embryo growth rate follows a constant pattern in the early stages of development in relation to embryonic age. Previous studies have shown a significant effect of some factors routinely used in practice, such as post-ovulation insemination and embryo transfer, on embryonic growth and the time in which the vesicle is first detected. This study attempts to confirm previous results in different settings and characterise the causes for this delay in growth. A total of 159 pregnancies from different mating protocols: (1) pre-ovulation natural mating, (2) pre-ovulation natural mating and transfer into recipient mares, (3) post-ovulation natural mating, and (4) post-ovulation AI with frozen/thaw spermatozoa were evaluated ultrasonographically from day 12 to 19 of pregnancy and vesicle diameters recorded. Regression analysis between embryonic vesicle diameters and embryonic ages was performed for each group and mean vesicle diameter at different age periods among groups were tested for statistical difference with a general linear model of variance. There was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (P=0.73) or between groups 3 and 4 (P=0.71). However both pre-ovulation groups (1 and 2) had larger vesicle diameters (P<0.000) at any embryonic age analysed than either of the post-ovulation groups (3 and 4). In conclusion, post-ovulation inseminations produced pregnancies with smaller vesicle diameters equivalent to approximately 1 day's growth.
We're always happy to try and help, but don't forget to check the articles section
of the website too, which has a search engine to help you look for answers!
:)
User avatar
Jos
Senior Stallion or Mare
 
Posts: 3948
Joined: Sun Jun 10, 2012 12:11 am

Re: Embryo size...

Postby Cindy » Tue Jun 26, 2012 12:10 pm

Thanks Jos! We rechecked her today (15 days post ovulation) and it has grown. It appeared to be a touch more oval than round measuring 12mmx16mm. Hoping that is o.k. or I just wasn't getting a perfect pic and that the more oval shape isn't a big concern. We will recheck her around 25 days to look for a heartbeat.
Cindy
Weanling
 
Posts: 26
Joined: Sun Jun 24, 2012 12:50 pm

Re: Embryo size...

Postby Cindy » Wed Aug 01, 2012 3:05 pm

So we rechecked this mare at 18 days and the embryo had grown at a good rate but was gone by day 28 when we checked again :-( We have now rebred her and she is again in foal (15 days today with a 11.9mm embryo), would you recommend putting her on Regumate or anything of the sorts as a "precaution" or do you prefer not to mess with them unless specifically needed? Should I just assume the first loss was just "one of those things" as not all embryos are viable. I have not had her hormone levels tested and she is a 7yr old maiden mare if that helps.
Cindy
Weanling
 
Posts: 26
Joined: Sun Jun 24, 2012 12:50 pm

Re: Embryo size...

Postby Jos » Wed Aug 01, 2012 7:39 pm

Our position on Regumate use is presented in this article.

The leading cause of ED (embryonic death prior to 35 days) is endometritis. Hopefully the previous loss was "just one of those things" but in the event that you experience a second loss, I would recommend evaluation for that condition. If endometritis is currently present, there is nothing that can be done to assist the issue right now, and in fact the use of progestins may exacerbate the problem.
We're always happy to try and help, but don't forget to check the articles section
of the website too, which has a search engine to help you look for answers!
:)
User avatar
Jos
Senior Stallion or Mare
 
Posts: 3948
Joined: Sun Jun 10, 2012 12:11 am

Re: Embryo size...

Postby Cindy » Wed Aug 01, 2012 11:19 pm

Thanks Jos, fingers crossed all goes well with this pregnancy!
Cindy
Weanling
 
Posts: 26
Joined: Sun Jun 24, 2012 12:50 pm

Re: Embryo size...

Postby Cindy » Thu Aug 16, 2012 8:13 pm

Well on a good note we checked the mare at 29 days post ovulation and everything looks good and we have a heartbeat! So fingers crossed for an uneventful next 10 months!
Cindy
Weanling
 
Posts: 26
Joined: Sun Jun 24, 2012 12:50 pm


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